|Research Article (Open access)|
SSR Inst. Int. J. Life Sci., 7(6): 2908-2912, November 2021
Presence of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) in the Tagetes Plants
Deepshikha Kushwaha1*, Prashant Katiyar2, Yashodhara Verma3
1Research Scholar, Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering, SHUATS, Allahabad, India
2Research Scholar, Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering, SHUATS, Allahabad, India
3Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering, SHUATS, Allahabad, India
*Address for Correspondence: Deepshikha Kushwaha, Research Scholar, Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering, Sam Higgin Bottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Allahabad-211007, India
ABSTRACT- Background: The marigold plant is widely used as herbal medicine due to presence of many phytoconstituents. In ancient times extract of the marigold flower was used as a remedy against various skin problems.
Method: This study aimed to determine the photo-protective activity of Tagetes Leaves and Flower by using UV-Spectrophotometer. UV-Vis spectrophotometry measured the absorption rate of UV rays at different wavelengths of each sample. To calculate the final sun protection factor (SPF) value, the Mansur equation was the appropriate method.
Results: The result of the study demonstrates that the marigold plants having for 15 and 10 SPF for flowers and leaves respectively
Conclusion: Marigold plant has natural SPF and it become a good source for formulation of bio-cosmetics.
Key Words: Solar radiation, Sun Protection Factor, UV-Spectrophotometer, Tagetes plants, Photo-protective
INTRODUCTION- Sunlight consists of a variety of wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet light to infrared and visible light. Direct skin exposure to solar radiation has some adverse effects. Excluding all sun rays, ultraviolet light has more deleterious effects on the skin such as sunburns, skin ageing and over the long term exposure of UV light even causes skin cancer. These harmful radiations causes’ deleterious effects in the skin like sarcoma due to oxidative free radicals presence in an excessive amount and this amount rises continuously as the amount of UV-B radiation is constantly exposed . The electromagnetic spectra of UV sun radiation can be further classified into three different regions: UVA, from 320 to 400 nm; UVB, from 290 to 320 nm and UVC, from 200 to 290 nm . Usually when sunrays approach the earth atmosphere only UVB radiation is partially filtered by the outer ozone layer and UV-A completely reaches to earth atmosphere while UV-C is completely absorbed in the outer atmosphere. UV-A causes skin ageing, rashes in the epidermal layer of skin while UV-B has higher penetration power as compared to UV-A responsible for causing cancer in the skin .
Due to these facts, UV-B radiations exposure can be cut off by developing naturally synthesized cosmetics products, which have photo-protective action and provide nourishment to the skin tissues. This is possible owing to the presence of antioxidants which restricts the formation of free radicals and help to reduce the chance of destructive skin effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, it is necessary to include such photoprotective bioactive active compounds in the cosmetic formulation and measure their efficiency against UV-rays. The sunscreen efficacy is usually decided based on Sun Protection Factor (SPF), defined as the UV energy required causing minimal erythema dose (MED) on protected skin to the UV energy required to produce a MED on unprotected skin . The minimal erythemal dose (MED) is defined as the minimum dosage of UV light irradiation sufficient to produce minimal, perceptible erythema on unprotected skins  for the shortest time interval. It means higher the SPF value containing cosmetic products are beneficial and more effective against UV-B rays.
SPF = Minimal erythema dose in sunscreen – protected skin
Minimal erythema dose in non-sunscreen – protected skin
Various synthetic products are available in the markets which are generally useful to protect skin from harmful UV rays. But these chemically synthesized products are usually not safe and effective [5-7]. This is the big disadvantage of synthetic cosmetic products. Synthetic products are available in the market containing various harmful effects and are not so effective. To avoid this problem researcher's criteria were shifted towards the naturally synthesized products . Many Researchers were focusing on naturally synthesized products, used as cosmetic products like synthetic cosmetics. But the foremost criteria for naturally synthesized cosmetics are the presence of bioactive compounds  generally found in natural resources and still some researchers were investigate to find out unknown & novel bioactive compounds which have a protective action against harmful UV radiations. This can be possible by discovering new reaction mechanisms, which is helpful to search out these interesting bioactive compounds, and easier to study their structure-function relationships to develop naturally synthesized photoprotective active compounds and restrict an unwanted inhibitory product formation. Furthermore, the natural synthesized active compounds are already known and widely occurring, so it is possible to produce a high-quality cosmetics product with significant SPF value characteristics available relatively at a low price [10,11].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Reagents and samples- Ethanol AR. Marigold plants were collected from the field of SHUATS, Allahabad.
Apparatus- Cistronic UV/Visible spectrophotometer 2202.
Sample preparation- Weighed (100 mg) sample ultrasonicated with 100 ml analytical grade ethanol for 5 minutes. Sonicated samples were filtered. The first 10 ml sample was discarded; out of the remaining filtrated 5 ml was relocated to a volumetric flask and made up volume up to 50 ml with diluted ethanol. Then take 5 ml sample and further 5 times diluted with ethanol. The prepared sample was read at the range from 290-320 nm to take absorption spectra at every 5 nm against ethanol blank in the triplicate manner for 30 minutes. Obtained data were calculated by using Mansur equation mentioned below-
SPF (spectrometry) = CF x Σ320290 EE (λ) x I (λ) x abs (λ)
Where, CF= correction factor (= 10), EE (λ)= Erythemal effect spectrum; (λ); I (λ)= intensity of the sunlight at a wavelength (λ); abs (λ)= sample absorbance at wave-length (λ)
The values of EE (λ) and I (λ) were calculated as previously by Sayre et al.  as described in Table 1.
Table 1: Erythemogenic effect relationship (EE) versus radiation intensity (I) according to the wavelength (λ)
EE x I (normalized)
Statistical analysis- The present data/results have analyzed the variance through a post hoc (ANOVA) multiple evaluation t-test (p≤0.01) by using STAT PAC Version 14.
RESULTS- The SPF values for marigold leaves and flowers were determined through the spectrophotometric method and calculated by the Mansur equation. The results were represented in Fig. 1.
A quantitative method to ensure the formulation of sunscreen is the sun protection factor. It is efficient to avoid and heal skin against sunburn and different other skin damages. SPF containing cosmetics products absorbed or reflected a wide range of UV rays in between 290-320 nm. Graphically it shows the sun protection factor (SPF) was found at maximum at 305 nm and minimum at 290 nm (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1: UV radiation absorbance for T. patula Flower and Leaves at wavelength range 290-320 nm
Fig. 2: Sun Protection Factor (SPF) for Tagetes patula Flower and Leaves
SPF factor significant value lies at (P≥0.01) level; checked value was significant at (P≥0.01) level. In this study, a lesser absorption value of the sun protection factor was observed in leaves as compared to flowers. In this respect, the reflectance capacity of leaves is observed higher than flowers by employing spectrophotometric methods. Spectrophotometrically SPF value of marigold flowers and leaves is calculated and a significant value was obtained which is equivalent to 15 and 10 at (P≥0.01) level. An evaluated SPF value showed the significant differences in SPF value of flower and leaves of marigold. Hence, developed cosmetic products from marigold containing SPF values in the range of 10-15 are considered to be safe for humans with sensitive skin against directly exposed sunlight conditions. This study supports photoactive in gradients of marigold, which help reduce the harmful effects of UV irradiation on human skin.
DISCUSSION- The protection of human skin against the UV induces radiation sunscreen has been used [12,13]. Plants have different types of active constituents, which worked as a shield to protect the skin from UV rays . Eco-friendly cosmetics are prepared with naturally extracted ingredients known as vegan cosmetics. These compounds are isolated from different parts of plants. These vegan cosmetics are a good source of different types of metabolites  and antioxidant, having skin protection properties SPF . In plants several types of secondary metabolites are presents such as ascorbic acid, catechins, triterpenes , tannins, isoflavones, xanthophylls , flavones, coumarins, flavonoids, flavanones, phytoestrogens, anthocyanidins, carotenoids , Volatile oils have been used as active compounds for sunscreens. These active compounds are also obtained from marine sources used as a preparation of anti-photo-ageing commercial products . Different mechanisms are accountable for protection. UV rays scattered and reflected by inorganic substances alternatively organic molecules absorbed the radiation . Cyclic or conjugated bonds and aromatic rings are dependable for the advancement of the UV absorption profile . The soluble polyphenols absorbed radiation from 304-350 nm while insoluble phenol from 352-385 nm . UVB radiation was absorbed by ferulic acid and its derivatives . Two aromatic rings containing compounds and flavonoids absorbed the UV rays in the range between 240-420 nm . The present study demonstrates that the marigold plants having SPF’s factors become a good source for the formulation of biocosmetics. This formulation was tested for long period and did not find any types of allergic reaction. Thus marigold extracts are suitable for use as natural sunscreen.
CONCLUSIONS- The SPF represents the effectiveness of a cosmetic product formulation specially sunscreens. The marigold should absorb the majority of UV radiation (290 to 320 nm) to be effective in preventing skin cancer, wrinkle formation, photo ageing, sunburn and other skin damages. This study concluded that marigold plants are the better alternative to cosmetic products to protect the skin from UV radiation. The method used in this work is simple, fast, not expensive and easy to use. Therefore, it could be used more often to monitor and evaluate the SPF value on sunscreens and other cosmetic products.
In future studies presence of secondary metabolites, which are found in marigold plants must be a good source for the formulation of multifunctional sunscreen and other cosmetics will not show any adverse effect on the skin.
CONTRIBUTION OF AUTHORS
Research concept- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Research design- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Supervision- Yashodhara Verma
Materials- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Data collection- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Data analysis and Interpretation- Deepshikha Kushwaha and Prashant Katiyar
Literature search- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Writing article- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Critical review- Prashant Katiyar
Article editing- Deepshikha Kushwaha
Final approval- Yashodhara Verma
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