ABSTRACT- Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a continuing endemic occurrence both in the developed and developing
countries leading to one of the highest causes of mortality and morbidity. A Road Traffic Accident (RTA) can be defined
as, 'An event that occurs on a way or street open to public traffic; resulting in one or more persons being injured or killed,
where at least one moving vehicle is involved. The current study is a cross sectional study seen the pattern of injuries
occurred by RTA. Total numbers of 384 RTA victims were undertaken in this study at Lord Buddha Koshi Medical
College, Saharsa, Bihar, India from Jan 2016 to June 2016. Total numbers of 384 RTA victims were undertaken in this
study. Age & sex wise distribution were analyzed. Types of injury, causes, and outcome were also analyzed. In this study
we were concluded that the age and sex distribution is independent of accident occurrence. It is clear that fractures on
head & face are common in RTA. Fractures in lower limb & upper limb are also common in road traffic accidents. Present
study showed that the motorcyclist is at more risk. Various reports in India have shown that the outcome of RTA is not
only a health hazard but also an economic burden.
Key-words- Road Traffic Accident, World Health Organization, Public Health Issue
Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a continuing endemic
occurrence both in the developed and developing world
leading to one of the highest causes of mortality and
morbidity. A Road Traffic Accident (RTA) can be defined
as, 'An event that occurs on a way or street open to public
traffic; resulting in one or more persons being injured or
killed, where at least one moving vehicle is involved. The
RTA is a collision between vehicles; between vehicles and
pedestrians; between vehicles and animals; or between
vehicles and geographical or architectural obstacles.' Road
traffic accidents are a human tragedy. The Global status
report on road safety 2013 indicates that worldwide the
total number of road traffic deaths remain unacceptably
high at 1.24 million per year. The Road Traffic accidents
(RTA) involve high human suffering and socioeconomic
costs in terms of premature deaths, injuries, loss of
productivity, and so on .n = Z2p (1-p)/d2
Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling
at excess speed and or drivers disobeying traffic signals.
Road traffic injuries are increasing exponentially year by
year along with advances in technology to improve
vehicular speed and efficiency. Most of these unfortunate
events can be attributed to human errors which are
absolutely preventable in nature.
According to the information available from World Health
Organization (WHO), road traffic injuries are the sixth
leading cause of death in India with a greater share of
hospitalization, deaths, disabilities and socio-economic
losses in the young and middle-aged population [2-4].
In India, as per previous data analysis for individuals of
more than 4 years of age, more life years are lost due to
traffic crashes than due to cardiovascular diseases or
neoplasm [4-6]. India is no exception and data showed that
more than 1.3 lakh people died on Indian roads giving India
the dubious honour of topping the global list of fatalities
from road crashes . The financial burden due to road
traffic accidents is estimated to be around 12000 crores per
This study aims to conduct a comprehensive baseline data
on the pattern of injuries occurred in study area due to road
traffic injury and provides feedback on recommendations
for protection of vulnerable parts of the body and
prevention of accidents to the target population. The
present study also aims to analyze the pattern of injuries in
relation to the mode of travel, type of injury and the
distribution over the body the present study was done with
particular reference to age and sex. This conducted study
may help the policy makers and the researchers to prevent
the further deaths and disabilities due to these collisions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
It was a descriptive, cross– sectional, period prevalence
hospital based study.
Study area was including all those patients involved in RTA
in Orthopedic OPD of the hospital district.
Study Time Period-
Jan 2016 to June 2016
Target Population, The target populations were the
general population of Saharsa, Bihar, India.
From the review of the previous studies done on the similar
lines the sample size was calculated using the given
Where, z = 1.96, p = 0.50, 1– p = 0.50, d = 0.05, minimum
sample size required is 384.
Age and sex of the accident victims caused of accidents and
types of injuries.
The collected data was entered and analyzed using SPSS
22.0. Frequencies and percentages were given for
Age and sex wise distribution of accident victims is
represented in Table 1. It is cleared that the age and sex
distribution is independent of accident occurrence (p>0.05)
male and female both are equally likely to get accidents
and it is also cleared that all the age groups have almost
same number of accidents.
Clinically the injury pattern were distributed and shown in
Table 2. Maximum victims (50%) got fractures on head and
face. Significant number of victims got fractures in lower
limb & upper limb (26% & 32% respectively). Almost 29%
victims got multiple injuries. Fractures on chest were
shown only 23% victims.
Mode of Causation of accidents can be shown by Table 3.
Maximum number victims (48%) were motorcyclist.
Cyclist & pedestrian’s victims were almost same (16%).
Passenger, LMV & heavy vehicles victims were 5%, 7% &
Outcome of the treatment were shown in Table 4. Table
shows that 92% patients got improvement. 4% patients
referred to higher centre while 3% patients were
absconded/LAMA. A very few (1%) victims got death.
Table 1: Age & Sex wise distribution of accident victims
Table 2: Injury pattern of accident victims
|| Total N (%)|
Table 3: Mode of Causation of accident victims
||Head & Face (Fractures)
|| 192 (50)|
||Lower Limb (Fractures)
||Upper Limb (Fractures)
||Surface and Integumentary region
Table 4: Outcome after treatment of accident victims
||Mode of Causation|| N (%)|
||Heavy Vehicle (Truck, Bus, Dumper etc)
||Mode of Causation|| N (%)|
||Referred to higher centre||14(4)|
This study recorded three hundred eighty four cases of
bone fractures over a period of six months and fractures
were observed to occur more in the lower extremities, with
the femur fractures on head and face being the most
common fractured are in RTA. Fractures in lower limb &
upper limb are also common in road traffic accidents.
Present study shows that motorcyclist is at more risk.
Students and businessmen were the most injured because of
the rush through heavy traffic to get to their businesses and
to the school. Similar observation was noted in the previous
study by others [8-9]. Various reports in India have shown
that the outcome of RTA is not only a health hazard but also
an economic burden. The Planning Commission in India in
its 2001–2003 research estimated that traffic collision
/accidents resulted in an annual monetary loss of
$10 billion (INR 550 billion) during the years 1999-2000.
Furthermore in the 2012, the International Road
Federation (IRF) concluded that the traffic accidents results
in an annual monetary loss of $20 billion (INR 1 trillion
(short scale) in India. The observed distribution could have
been a consequence of the extensive mobility inherent in
individuals within this age group . Furthermore, male
predominance for fractures could be attributed to the
involvement in manual activities (construction, vehicular
driving, motorcycle riding etc.) which may result in RTA.
Road traffic accidents have been reported to be a major
cause of bone fractures [10- 17].
Road traffic crashes represent a most important public
health problem in our setting and contribute significantly to
unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. There is need
for legislation against alcohol consumption among
motorcyclists during riding hours and enforcement of speed
limits by government in order to reduce RTAs among
motorcyclists. Early recognition and prompt treatment of
road traffic injuries is essential for optimal patient outcome.
In our study we concluded that age & sex distribution is
independent of accident occurrence. In the present study ,
Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) were evaluation to be a
leading cause of bone fractures especially in individuals in
decades of life, constituting most of its
victims. So it is well known that RTA problems a major
public health issues having a great economic consequences.
Mostly probably males were observed to be predominantly
involved with the lower extremity the most affected site of
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