|Research Article (Open access)|
ABSTRACT- Uttrakhand has tremendous potential for medicinal plants cultivation and in becoming one of the
important options for sustainable livelihood in the Doon valley as well as all hilly regions. Doon-valley, Uttrakhand can
take advantages of increasing demand and low availability of medicinal and aromatic plants resources in the other parts
of the country and start to grow highly valuable medicinal plants in high altitude areas. Medicinal and aromatic plants can
play an important role in the subsistence livelihood enhancement rural people, especially women through an
environmentally sustainable manner while maintaining the biodiversity of these natural products.
Key-words- Endangered plants, Medicinal flora, Indigenous use, Medicinal and aromatic plants
The plants have been used as a source of medicines by the
man from ancient times to the present day. Initially, these
were the main parts of folk or ethno medicine practiced in
India and other parts of the world like China, Middle East
Africa, and South America. Later a considerable part of this
indigenous knowledge was formulated, documented and
eventually passed into the organized systems of medicines
such as Ayurveda, Yunani, Siddha or other systems.
Subsequently, with the advance in the techniques of
phytochemistry and pharmacology, a number of active
principles of medicinal plants were isolated and introduced
as valuable drugs in the modern system of medicine .
Demands for medicinal plants are increasing in both
developing and developed countries. As per WHO estimate,
about 80% of the population in developing countries
depends directly on plants for medicine.
Medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world and its use is rapidly expanding in the industrialized countries .
The Rigveda believed to have been written about 5000 B.C. and regarded as a first authentic record of human civilization, mentioning many plants for their beneficial effects. The systematic study of Indian vegetable drugs was carried out in early nineteenth century. Probably the botanical observations of selected plants are the first step in such a direction. The Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants and Drugs was followed by the Bengal Dispensary and Pharmacopoeia of O’Shaughnessy (1841) where in the properties and uses of the medicinal plants were mentioned. Probably the botanical observations of selected plants are the first step in such a direction. The Translation of Sanskrit Materia Medica and the Materia Medica of Madras brought a good account of drugs used by the then Hindu physicians. India has one of world's richest medicinal plant heritages. The wealth is not only in terms of the number of unique species documented, but also in terms of tremendous depth of traditional knowledge for the uses of human and livestock health and also for agriculture. Historically, the medicinal plants have played a significant role in the most convenient and effective manner in health care because these are not only naturally easily available, cost effective, safe and regenerative but also the tribal have had the knowledge about these medicinal plants, as a result of their long term association with the forest for time.
Garhwal Himalaya is referred to as a land of gods as many important religious shrines are located besides the confluence of five tributaries of sacred river Ganges. The Hindu community regards a variety of natural objects sacred. These include the river Ganges and its tributaries and their confluence amongst the religious shrines, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Yamunotri, and Gangotri. The sacred mountain peaks are Nanda Devi, Trishul, Chaukhamba, Kailash, Binsar and Syahi Devi and Doon valley. The Himalaya and its foothills are covered with thick vegetation and rich biodiversity .
Traditionally, the tribal and rural poor population of Uttaranchal has had close socioeconomic developmental links with medicinal plants. These resources have provided them not only primary herbal medicines for their survival but also a substantial part of their income. Even today, the majority of the populations living in and around the forests derive their income from a collection of medicinal plants. The State Government in 2003 declared Uttaranchal as an "Herbal State” 5.
Doon Valley covers the outer Himalayan ranges in the north and north-east and Shiwalik ridge in the south and south-west, with rivers Ganga and Yamuna forming the other two sides. Due to wide variations in topography and other factors, Doon valley possesses a very rich and varied medicinal flora and has been explored by various workers. The study sites chosen for the present study are experiencing the wide range of anthropogenic disturbances like a collection of fuel and fodder, cattle grazing, increase in the population near the villages of the study sites. In recent years, especially after the inception of Uttarakhand in year the 2000 and Dehradun’s (Doon Valley) becoming the capital of this state, this valley is expanding exponentially .
Viewed from the fact that there is a serious threat to the medicinal plant diversity in this region, it is reissuing to know that various research institutions and individuals have suggested cultivation practices and documentation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants prevalent in Himalayan region for their long term conservation .
In this purposed work an update on the distribution, plant parts used for various diseases by local people residing in the outer fringes of Doon valley, has been presented. The main aim of present study was to document the indigenous medicinal knowledge of rural population and to suggest appropriate conservation practices and its utilization in poverty alleviation of rural peoples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Study site- The study site is located in Doon valley which is bound by lesser Himalayas in the north and younger Siwaliks in the south and is limited by river Ganga and Yumuna in east and west respectively. It lies between longitude 770 35’ to 780 24’ east and latitude 290 55’ and 300 30’ north and covers an area of more than 2000 sq. km.
The present study was conducted during the year 2016 in Sahastradhara region and adjacent area. The area was exhaustively survey for this study. Usual methods of collection, preservation and maintenance of specimen in herbarium were followed . During the field study the specimen of plants with flower and fruit were recorded. A collection of plant species were made throughout the year. After collection, the specimen were processed, preserved, and mounted on herbarium sheets. The herbarium sheets identified from the BSI herbaria and FRI herbaria and after that deposited in the laboratory, department of Botany, UCST College, Dehradun, India.
Present study based Inventory on field level information Sahastradhara region of Dehradun. Sahastradhara region and adjoining area of Nagal Hatnala and some Catchment areas of Doon valley where we find out medicinal plants for our purposed work.
The study was conducted during the first week of March and Mid of July month in the Year 2016. To find out the economic potential of Medicinal and aromatic plants crop in Sahastradhara region Dehradun, India. The data was collected through secondary sources mainly from the website of Government of Uttarakhand, State Medicine Plant Board of Uttarakhand and Forest department of Uttarakhand. UCST and FRI library, References from research papers, books, articles, and newspaper were taken for interpretation of data.
All the collected plant specimens were identified with the help of recent and relevant floras and confirmed after matching with the authentic specimens, housed in the Herbaria of Botanical Survey of India, Northern Circle (BSI), and Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun. All the collected plant specimens will be deposited in the department of botany, UCST, Dehradun, UK.
The present study is based on the extensive surveys on the representative parts of North Western and Western Himalaya specially Doon valley and scrupulous review of the information available on medicinal plants. While conducting the surveys on biodiversity including medicinal plants of the above regions, information was also gathered from local inhabitants about the medicinal properties of the medicinal plants. For this local knowledgeable persons were interviewed on indigenous uses and medicinal properties the medicinal plants. The additional information includes local names, part(s) used, altitudinal distribution, habitat, etc.
|BOTANICAL NAMES||LOCAL NAME||FAMILY||PART USED||ALIMENT/DISEASE||METHOD OF USE|
|Bach||Araceae||Rhizome||Gastric problems||*Paste of the rhizome fixed with small quantity of sugar is used to cure gastric problems.|
|Acacia catechu||Khair||Mimosaceae||Root||Ulcer||*Root paste is applied for for the treatment of ulcer.|
|Achyranthes aspera||Chirchita/ Latzira||Amaranthaceae||Leaves/Root||Skin Disease/Snake bite|| *Make fine paste of leaves and
apply on infected parts.|
*Root paste is used for the treatment of snake bite
|Adhatoda vasica||Safed bansa/Basingu||Acanthaceae||Leaves||Cancer||*Take 1 ml leaf juice and mix it with goat’s milk. Drink 2 tsp. every morning. Use for 40 days.|
|Artemisia wallichiana||Kundju||Asteraceae||Leaves, Flower||Intestinal worms(Round worm,Pin worm)||*An extract made from this herb used to get rid the intestinal worms, hence the name worm wood.|
|Argemone Mexicana||Kandaru||Papveraceae||Whole plant||Leprosy,Skin Disease||*Use the juice of the plant to cure Leprrosy and uses the oil to cure the Skin disease.|
|Asparagus adscendens||Ghirunu||Asperagaceae||Whole plant||Hormonal imbalance||*Patients suffering from hormonal imbalance are advised to intake asparagus capsules twice per day after meals with water.|
|Aloe vera||Patvaar||Asphodelaceae||Leaves||Skin Disorders, wounds, burns||*The clear gel contained within the leaf apply on the infected area, Speeding up the rate of healing and reducing the risk of infection.|
|Amaranthus spinosus||Kadya sagoti||Amaranthaceae||Seeds||Measles|| *The children suffering from
measles are advised to inhale
smell that emanates from roasting
dried seeds. Seeds once roasted
are mixed with gur and made into
*The balls are given to the children suffering from measles.
|Agreatum conyzoides||Jangli pudina||Asteraceae||Whole plant||Cuts Wounds, Bruises||*The juice of the plant is used to treat cuts, wounds and bruises. Plant is also anti-inflammatory and antiallergic.|
|Aegle marmelos||Bael/Bel||Rutaceae||Leaves, Fruit||Diarrhea, Dysentery, Jaundice||
*Fruit used in condiction like
. *Juice of bael leaves with black pepper taken three times a day helpful in jaundice.
|Albizia lebbeck||Shireesha||Miliaceae||Leaves, Flower||Snake bites||*Juice is extracted and given for oral intake in snake bites.|
|Aerva sanguinolenta||Escancel||Amaranthaceae||Leaves||Wound Healing, Headache||*Extract made from leaves used for wound healing and Headache and also has diuretic properties.|
|Bauhinia variegate||Kachnar/Kurail||Caesalpiniaceae>||Stem ,bark, Flower||Bleeding disorders, Leprosy||*Bark powder is given for the
treatment of leprosy.|
*Decoction of flower buds is given to treat bleeding disorders.
|Butea monosperma||Dhak/plash||Fabaceae||Flower,Gum, Seeds and Root||Intestinal worms Diarrhoea and Blood Pressure,melting kidney stone, Anaemia in kids,dermatitis||*The seed can be ground into a
powdered form and this powder can then be consumed to kill
worms in the intestine.|
*The root has been found to have some action on blood pressure.
*The gum is valuable for treatment of diarrhea.
*Flower soup use melting kidney stone
|Bombax ceiba||Semal,semul (Cotten)||Malvaceae||Leaves||Loose motion||*Prepare a leaf decoction of Bombax ceiba .Consume 45 ml of it twice a day.|
|Cinnamomum tamala||Tejpatta (G.I. rank concern govt. of India)||Lauraceae||Leaves||Induced Diabetic rate, Antioxident||*The Cinnamomum leaves methanolic extract uses significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme and adjunt therapy in diabeties.|
|Cannabis sativa||Bhang||Cannabaceae||Leaves||Lice||*The leaves are grinded and leaf juice is applied on hair.|
|Cassia tora||Chakunda||Caesalpiniaceae||Fruit||Fever||*Decoction of the fruit of Cassia tora is used in the treatment of fever.|
|Centella asiatica||Brahmi||Apiaceae||Leaves||Mouth ulcer||*Chwed 4-5 Leaves of the Centella asiatica which help in the treatment of mouth ulcer|
|Cuscuta europaea||Akashbail||Convolvulaceae||Whole plant||Cold||*The plant is boiled in water and some salt is added. The mixture is used to cure cold. The decoction of seeds in high doses causes abortion.|
|Cynodon dactylon||Dhoob||Poaceae||Whole plant||Acidity, Stomach infection, Stomach pain||*To treat acidity and Stomach infection, one should take of plant 3-4 tsp and water (1 glass) empty stomach in the morning.|
|Cyperus rotundus||Morya, Mothaa||Cyperaceae||Rhizomes||Improves eye sight and eye releated problems||*The past is used to improve eye sight and helps in eye related ailments.|
|Coriandrum sativum||Dhaniya||Apiaceae||Leaves, Seeds||Digestive disfunction, Diarrhea||*Juice is given to treat dysfunction in digestive system including vomiting and diarrhea.|
|Chenopodium album||Bethuwa||Chenopodiaceae||Leaf/ branches||Kidney stone||*Take tender leaves and branches and grind them to extract its juice and take 10-15gm of it daily with water. This also reduces the tendency of stone formation.|
|Clevodandrum infortunatum||Aranyo||Verbenaceae||Leaves||Fever||*Prepare leaf decoction of plant. Drink 40 ml of it once a day. It helps to all types of fever.|
|Calotropis procera||Aak/Aakha||Aselepidaceae||Leaves/latex||Snake bite||*Leaves were chewed and latex is applied over the wound|
|Datura stramonium||Dhatura||Solanaceae||Leaves||Relieve pain||*The paste of roasted leaves is applied over the area to relive pain.|
|Eupatorium adenophorum||Basya||Asteraceae||Leaves||Active immunity, Anti-inflammatory||*Extract of the leaves of the helps in immunity active and anti-inflammatory|
|Eucalyptus globulus||Safeeda||Myrataceae||Leaves||Infection, Skin disease, Antibacterial||Leaf extract are used to cure infection and some skin disease.|
|Euphorbia hirta||Dudhi ghas||Euphorbiaceae||Aerial parts||Skin disorder, Eye infection||*Paste of leaves are used to treat skin disorder and decoction made from the flowers can aid in healing eye infection and inflammation.|
|Ficus religiosa||Pepal||Moraceae||Leaves||Bleeding or arresting secretion||*About 50 ml of raw juice of the leaves or 1 tsp of powdered dried leaves can be taken with water.|
|Ficus bengalensis||Bargad/Bad||Moraceae||Leaves, Roots||Skin disorder, protecting gums||*A paste made from leaves can be used for relieving skin disorder; roots are used to clean the teeth.||Ficus glomerata||Umares/Gullar||Moraceae||Latex||Leucorrhea||*About 5 drops of latex is used in treating leucorrhea.|
|Mentha longifolia||Ban pudina||Lamiaceae||Leaves||Cough, indigestion, asthma, stomach cramps||*Leaves are used to make a tea that is drunk for cough, indigestion and stomach cramps.|
|Mentha arvensis||Pudina||Lamiaceae||Whole plants||Stomach aches, Cough||*Boil 6 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 min. cool and strain. Divide the decoction into 3 parts and consume three times a day. This will help in treating cough and stomachaches.|
|Murraya paniculata||Kamini/ Kadipatta||Rutaceae||Leaves||Diarrhea, dysentery||*Infusion of leaves is used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.|
|Melia azedarach||Bakain||Miliaceae||Root bark||Skin disease, Ringworm||*The root bark is emetic, vermifuge and highly effected and used against ringworm and skin disease.|
|Mimosa pudica||Chhui-mui, Lajwanti||Fabaceae||Leaves||Diabetes, Wound healing, Menorrhea||*Decoction of leaves is used for
*Paste of leaves arrests bleeding and fasten the wound healing process.
*The powder of Mimosa leaf 5gm is taken daily in empty stomach for one month to cure Menorrhea.
|Oxalis corniculata||Khati buti||Oxaliaceae||Leaves||Fever, Skin rashes||*Paste of leaves are used for remedy of Fever, skin rashes|
|Phyllanthus emblica||Amla||Euphorbiaceae||Fruit||Preserving eye sight||*1 tablespoon of Amala juice and honey taken every morning promotes vigor and vitality and useful in preserving eyesight.|
|Punica granatum||Anar||Lythraceae||Fruit||Weakness, fatigue, hair loss||*Juice of the fruit is taken to prevent weakness, fatigue and hair loss, as it provides support to the blood by supplying it with iron.|
|Ricinus communis||Arand||Euphorbiaceae||Seed||Arthritis||*Castor oil is obtained from the seed and used for alleviating symptoms of Arthritis.|
|Rumex hastatus||Almoda||Polygonaceae||Whole plant||Bloody dysentery||*The juice of the plant is astringent and is used in the treatment of bloody dysentery.|
|Solanium nigrum||Makoi, Geahwai||Solanaceae||Leaves||Stomachache and swollen testicles.||*The decoction of leaves is taken orally to cure stomachache. Hot leaves are applied with gratifying results over swollen scrotum and testicles.|
|Trifolium repens||Garila||Fabaceae||Leaves||Irregular menses||*Leaves are cooked and then eaten to restore irregular menses.|
|Urtica dioica||Kandali||Urticaeae||Leaves||Urinary tract infection||*Drinking tea made of stinging nettles help in the treatment of urinary tract infection.|
|Xanthium indicum||Sarpakshi||Asteraceae||Root, Fruits||Bites of insect||*The Root paste is applied on the site of insect bite.|
|Ziziphus mauritiana||Ber||Rhamnaceae||Leaves, Fruit||Burning sensation, Fever, gastritis||*Paste made from leaves is
applied externally to relieve
burning sensation and fever.|
*Sweet and ripe fruit relieve gastritis.
|Zanthoxylum armatum||Timur/Timbur||Rutaceae||Stem||Toothache||*The stem is used as toothbrush during gum problem and Toothache|
|International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research (IJLSSR)
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|How to cite this article:|
Sharma A, Singh H, Kumar N: Studies on Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Flora and its Contribution to Livelihood Enhancement in the Doon-Valley, Uttrakhand (India). Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res., 2017; 3(2): 951-960. DOI:10.21276/ijlssr.2017.3.2.13
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