ABSTRACT- The present investigation was carried out to the effect of Fenvalerate on haematological parameters in
freshwater fish Channa marulius using standard methods. Fish was exposed to (1/4th LC50) sub lethal concentration of
Fenvalerate (0.086ppm) for 96h.The blood sample were obtained from both, control and experimental fish and assayed
haematological parameters (Total Erythrocytes count, TEC; Total Leucocytes count, TLC; Haemoglobin, Hb; Packed cell
volume, PCV; Mean corpuscular volume, MCV; Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin
Concentration; MCHC). The result revealed that TEC, Hb percentage, PCV and MCHC counts were significantly
decreased, whereas TLC, MCV and MCH increased slightly in experimental fish. The study has thus indicated marked
changes in blood of Channa marulius after exposure to Fenvalerate.
Key-words- Fenvalerate, Hematology, Channa marulius, Haemoglobin, Sub lethal
The blood parameters in fishes are influenced by many
factors viz. quality of water, temperature, the sex, size,
season and age of fishes are directly reflected
haematological parameters of the fishes (Bhagat et al.,
1986). The study of fish blood parameters are important for
determining factors related to its physiological capacity
(Affonso, 2001; Wells et al., 2005).
Blood parameters are considered path physiological
indicators of the whole body and therefore are important in
diagnosis the structural and functional status of fish
exposed to toxicants (Adhikari et al., 2004). A number of
hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and
haemoglobin content and so on, are used to assess the
functional status of the oxygen carrying capacity of the
blood. Pollution of aquatic ecosystem by chemical used in
industry and agricultural is increasing day by day.
Due to injudicious and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals,
fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides to boost crop
production with the sole aim of getting more yields. Water
bodies like ponds, lakes and rivers are continuously getting
polluted normally these pesticides reaches an
aquatic environment through surface runoff and sediment
transport from treated effluents (Bauman, 1981).
Direct application of pesticides to water bodies to control
the inhabiting pests. Spray drift from normal agricultural
operation and through heavy rainfall. In all cases these
chemicals may directly toxic as well as deteriorate the
water quality by changing its physicochemical nature and
cause ecological imbalance leading to health hazards to
different types of aquatic organisms in general and fishes in
particular (Tripathi, 1992). The herbicide can cause death
of fishes either directly or due to saturation by destruction
of food chain many herbicides have shown to effect the
growth and reproduction of fishes with evidence of tissue
damage (Dhasarathan et al., 2000). The present study was
under taken to analyze the impact of 1/4th sub lethal
concentration of Fenvalarate on haematological parameters
of fresh water fish Channa marulius (Ham Buch).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fresh water fish Channa marulius weighing (15 ± 5 g)
and length (10 ± 3 cm) were collected from Kan and
Panzara river of Sakri Taluka (Dhule). Live fishes were
brought to the laboratory and thoroughly washed under tap
water and acclimatized in laboratory conditions for 15
days. They were fed with standard fish diet (Tokyu grow
certified company). Water in the tank was changes after 2
days of interval. Technical grade Fenvalerate (ISAGRO
ASIA), 20% emulsifiable concentration (EC) was
purchased from Sushil Agricultural pesticide and fertilizer
Agency, Sakri for present study.
The fishes were divided into a group, each group of ten
healthy fishes were transferred to plastic tough having
capacity of 10 litres and they exposed to1/4th sub lethal
concentration of Fenvalerate (0.086ppm). One group was
kept as control. At the end of exposure period the blood
was collected in glass tube by cutting the caudal peduncle,
using EDTA as anticoagulant. Maximum 2ml blood was
taken for haematological studies. The haematological
parameters such as RBC, WBC, and Hb, packed cell
volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean
corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were estimated by
using the methods described by Swarup et al., (2002).
The RBC and WBC were counted by haemocytometer, Hb
was determined by Sahil’s haemoglobinometer and PCV
was measured by using Wintrobe’s tube. The Mean
Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular
Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin
Concentration were calculated by equation.
MCV (Cubic micron) = ---------------------
RBC (million /cu.mm)
Hb in g % ×10
MCH (Pg) = ---------------------------
Hb in g %
MCHC (g/dl) = -------------X 100
Result were expressed ± S.E. three replicates and
differences between mean were considered to significance
when p<0.05 (Bansal et al.,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the present investigation, the effect of insecticide like
(0.086ppm) on haematological parameters
such as RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC in
the fresh water fish C. marulius
is shown in Table-1.
Effect on RBC:
The amount of RBC present in the blood of fish after
exposed to different hours in 0.086 ppm concentration of
Fenvalerate .The blood of fishes exposed to 0.086 ppm
Fenvalerate for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were found to
contain 1.98, 1.7, 1.42, 1.32mm3
respectively and mean
control was 2.51 mm3. The R BC values were significantly
decreased than the control.
Lowering of RBC amount might be due to damaging action
of insecticides on peripheral cell due to which viability of
the cell was affected. Anemia could be due to effect of
insecticide on haemopoisis or attraction of cell membrane
and hydrolysis of acetyl chloride in body fluid by chlorine
esterase of erythrocytes may be secondary result from a
primary action of the insecticides on the erythropoetic
tissue due to which there was a facture in the red cell
Effect on WBC:
The amount of WBC present in the blood of fish after
exposed to sub lethal concentration of 1/4th
24h, 48h, 72h and 96h were found to contain 3.80, 4.69,
5.11, and 6.38 mm3
respectively and mean control was
observed 4.25 mm3
In the present investigation the WBC values showed
significant higher in 48 h, 72h and 96 h than the mean
control value while it was less in 24h. An increase in
lymphocytes suggests that the immune mechanism of fish
get stimulates and become adapted under insecticide stress
to fight against the pollutants in the environment. Higher
white blood cell count indicates damage due to infection of
body tissue may be physical stress and leukemia. Increased
in the in the number of leucocytes occurs due to
immunological response. Similarly increased in total leucocytes
counts has been observed by Binu Kumari, et al.,
(2010).This significant increase in total leucocytes count
might be due to immunological reactions to produce more
antibodies to cope with the stress induced by these
toxicants. Increase in the number of WBC of C.marulius
reflects impairment of the defense mechanism and
manifested in to leucocytosis to cope with such a situation.
Similar results were reported in teleost
by Tyagi, et al
(1989); Dutta, et al (1992); Kalair, et al (1993) and
Ramesh and Saravan (2008) on exposure to different
pesticide. Lymphocytes are numerically predominant white
blood cells in fish (Kumar, et al., 1999). Lymphocytes of
fish have been regarded as immune-competent. Thus they
are responsible for the production of antibodies (Eills, et
Effect on haemoglobin:
The amount of hemoglobin content in the blood of fish
after exposed to sub lethal concentration of 1/4th
of Fenvalerate for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were found to
contain 9.2, 8.41, 7.02, 5.42 g/dl respectively and mean
control was recorded as 10.22 g/dl. The hemoglobin level
in all exposure period was significantly decreased over the
control. Our work was supported by Thomas
Nithyanandam, et al (2007). He was reported in C. carpio
on exposed to pesticide, the reduction of hemoglobin might
be due to blood coagulation. Similarly Gill,et al., (1992)
reported reduction in RBC and Hb in Barbus conchohitus
exposed to Endosulfan, Catla catla
exposed to ekalux
(Mustak and Natrajan,1992),Cyprinus carpio exposed to
Dimethoate (Chauhan, et al.,1994). Ramesh and Manvalara
Manujan, (1992) reported decrease in Hb, TEC in
Malathion exposed fresh water carp cyprinus carpio
sumithion exposed to Clarias batrachus
Anaemia induced stress may also be due to blood cell
injury and disrupted hemoglobin synthesis (Binna Kumari
and Subhisha, 2010). The causes of depletion in the Hb
content in Puntius conchonius
are supposed to
degeneration, depression and destruction of the blood
forming material by the piscicidal compound (Patole and
Table-1: Haematological parameters of fresh water fish Channa marulius exposed to 1/4th sub lethal concentration of Fenvalerate (0.086ppm) insecticide
Mean ± S.D. values differ significantly (p<0.05) within same columns.
|Parameters ||Exposure periods|
|Control ||24hrs ||48hrs ||72hrs ||96hrs|
(×106/mm 3 )
||2.51 ± 0.3 ||1.98 ± 0.22
|1.42 ± 0.02
|1.32 ± 0.14|
||4.25 ± 0.65 ||3.80 ± 0.18
|4.69 ± 0.3
|5.11 ± 0.09
|6.38 ± 0.52|
|Hb (g %) ||10.22±0.98 ||9.2 ± 1.3
|7.02 ± 0.48
|5.42 ± 0.58|
|PCV (%) ||30.9 ± 4.1 ||33.3 ± 2.7
|23.93 ± 2.57|
|MCV(µm3) ||122 ± 3.0 ||163 ± 8
|165 ± 10
|MCH(Pg) ||42.1 ± 3.5 ||45.2 ± 3.3
|41.3 ± 21
|50.2 ± 2.6
|43.36 ± 6.64|
|MCHC(g /dl) ||34.1 ± 2.3 ||28.4 ± 1.6
|29.6 ± 1.0
|23.53 ± 1.77|
*Significant value: p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001. NS = Non-Significant (p>0.05). Values in the parenthesis are percentage change over control
treated as 100 per cent.
Effect on PCV:
The amount of PCV of exposed C. marulius
after the 24 h,
48 h, 72 h and 96 h exposure were 33.3, 28.3, 26.25,
23.93% and mean control was 30.9 %. It was increase in
24h.Whereas in 48h, 72 h and 96 h was significantly
decreased from exposure period to control over.
Effect on MCV:
The amount of MCV of the fish exposed to sub lethal
concentration of Fenvalerate after the 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and
96 h exposed period revealed 163, 165, 172,184µm3
respectively and mean control was 122 µ3
The MCV contain in exposure period was significantly
increased over control.
Effect on MCH:
The amount of MCH in the blood of the fishes exposed
sub lethal concentration (0.086ppm) of Fenvalerate
for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h was found to contain 45.2,
41.3, 50.2 and 43.36 pg respectively and mean control was
42.1 pg. The values were decreased in 48 h. While the
values are increased in 24 h,72 h and 96 h than over
Effect on MCHC:
The amount of MCHC in the blood of the fish recorded as
28.4, 29.6, 27.04, 23.53g/dl respectively and means control
value was 34.1 g/dl was to be found. The MCHC was
decreased from control to exposure period. Atamanalp et al,
(2003), Atmanalp and Yanik, (2003) found a significant
increase in the level of RBC and significant decrease in
MCH, MCHC, thrombocytes count and erythrocyte
sedimentation rate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykess
following Cypermethrin and Mancozeb acute exposure. A
decrease in important blood parameters has been reported
during exposure to various pesticides in fish (Saxena and
The decrease in the above parameters indicates stage of fish
caused due to decreased erythropoetic activity or increased
destruction of red blood cells further support in favors of
this comes from the decrease noted PCV. Decrease in Hb
indicates poor O2 transport by blood caused by damage or
due to increased accumulation of CO2
in blood. In the
present investigation significant change was recorded in the
RBC, WBC, Hb, MCV, PCV and MCHC. The reduction in
this values might be due to spleen concentration after have
been detected in fish. Cells released from spleen which is
an erythropoetic organ would have lowered those values.
The present investigation show that Fenvalerate caused
decrease in the haematological parameter in Channa
which suggest that the Fenvalerate (synthetic
pyrethroids) may weak the immune system and result in
severe physiological problem ultimately to the death of
fish. Fenvalerate is a synthetic pyrethroid used to protect
many fruits, vegetables and field crops against disease,
hence farmer come direct contact it and may impair their
The authors are grateful to the principal, S.G. Patil Arts,
Science and Commerce College, Sakri Dist. Dhule (M.S.)
for providing necessary laboratory facilities. Also thankful
to Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Station,
Akurdi, Pune (M.S.) for the identification of fish.
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