IJLSSR JOURNAL, VOLUME 2, ISSUE 3, MAY-2016:258-261

Research Article (Open access)

Effect of Rispana Sewage Wastewater on the Growth Parameters of Moong Bean Plant (Vigna radiata)

Chandranandani Negi,1* Sonam Sirohi2
1Department of Biotechnology, Sai Institute of Paramedical & Allied Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
2Department of Microbiology, Dolphin (PG) Institute of Bio Medical & Natural Sciences, Uttarakhand, India

*Address for Correspondence: Chandranandani Negi, M. Sc Student, Department of Biotechnology, Sai Institute of Paramedical & Allied Sciences,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Received: 19 March 2016/Revised: 13 April 2016/Accepted: 02 May 2016

ABSTRACT- For every life form, water is an essential natural element. Ever increasing growth of population, especially in developing country like India, have affected not only surface but also ground water quality and is main cause for environmental pollution. The most possible sources of soil, water and plant pollutions are sewage sludge, residues of industrial factories and intensive fertilization. Increased organic matter (from the sewage) breaking down in the river reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water body as the decomposition process uses up the available dissolved oxygen. Microbial pathogens introduced by sewage into surface or groundwater can threaten public health, as well as affect ecosystem health and function. Today as demand for fresh water intensifies, the use of municipal or sewage wastewater as alternative source of water for irrigation purpose is also a common practice. The present study was conducted to assess the physicochemical parameters of the Rispana river where sewage is dumped and also effect of this sewage wastewater on selected plant Vigna radiata. The findings of the study indicated a direct influence of sewage wastewater on the plantlets and decrease in overall growth of plant with increase in concentration of wastewater.
Key-words- Water pollution, Urbanization, Environmental effect, Vigna radiata

1. INTRODUCTION
Wastewater is simply water that has been used. It usually contains various pollutants, depending on what it was used for. One of the serious environmental concerns of India is water pollution where majority of the population is exposed to poor water quality. In suburban areas, the use of industrial or municipal waste water is common practice in many parts of the world including India [1]. The most possible sources of soil, water and plant pollutions are sewage sludge, residues of industrial factories and intensive fertilization. The increasing pace of industrialization in public and private sectors along with urbanization, population explosion are reflected in varying degree of pollution of water, soil and air [2].
Physiochemical parameters of water are induced due to discharge of untreated or partially treated industrial waste and sewage waste into water bodies [3].
Cost of treatment of sewage water for recycling is too high to be generally feasible in developing countries like India. In most of the cases the untreated sewage either finds way to the nearest water bodies or is intentionally put into the agricultural fields by the farmers as a substitute for irrigation .Indiscriminate disposal of such water is a cause for pollution of air, soil and groundwater supplies. It can cause many environmental problems such as soil sickness, soil and ground water contamination and phytotoxicity. Sewage adversely affects many crops such as radish during maturity stage and as a result the production decreases substantially [4]. The water quality monitoring results carried out by CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) particularly with respect to the indicator of oxygen consuming substances (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD) and the indicator of pathogenic bacteria (total coliform and faecal coliform) show that there is gradual degradation in water quality (CPCB 2009). During 19952009, the number of observed sample with BOD values less than 3 mg/l were between 5769 percent; in 2007 the observed samples were 69 per cent. Studies has been carried out to understand the effect of sewage wastewater of Krishnapura nallah Indore on growth parameters of Trigonella foenumgraecum which showed positive as well as negative impact on the plant [5]. Keeping the above in view the study was undertaken to assess the effect of Rispana sewage wastewater on selected plant in term of growth parameters and also checking the physicochemical properties of the river.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out in Department of Biotechnology, Sai Institute of Paramedical & Allied Sciences, Dehradun Uttarakhand, college affiliated to Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Uttarakhand (Central University). The study was carried out during the period of February 2015- April 2015.

2.1 Study area: The capital city of Uttarakhand, Dehradun is located in the northern part of India. It is 236 km north of India's capital New Delhi. It is between latitudes 29 58' N and 312'N and longitudes 77 34' E and 78 18'E. The study area selected was Rispana river. It is the part of Ganga drainage system of the valley. The river originates from Mussoorie hills and is supported by natural spring. The river is tributary of the Song river, which finally discharges into Ganga.

2.2 Sample collection: The wastewater was collected from Rispana river, Dehradun in 5 BOD bottles and was taken to laboratory for analysis of physicochemical analysis and further again more sample wastewater was collected time to time for germination of moong bean seeds in-vitro condition.

2.3 Physicochemical Analysis: After collection, the sample was analyzed for the physicochemical properties. Different parameters- colour, odour, turbidity, pH, TDS, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, alkalinity were analyzed in laboratory.

2.4 in-vitro Effect of Wastewater on Plants: Healthy seeds of Vigna radiata were taken from the local market of Dehradun. Two different methods to germinate the seeds were followed i.e first method was to germinate seeds in culture tubes and agar plates while another was in plastic pots containing sterilized and non-sterilized soil.

2.4.1 Culture Tubes and Agar Plates: Seeds were sterilized and Media (100 ml each) was prepared in 6 conical flasks .Weighed quantity of agar-agar (2 grams) was added to the measured quantity of sewage wastewater with distilled water at 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% dilutions naming the flasks as A? for control (containing 100 ml distilled water), A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 for varying concentration of wastewater and distilled water respectively. Seeds were germinated using this sterilized medium in different sets of culture tubes and agar plates. They were then incubated at 25 C for 3 and 5 days respectively.

2.4.2 Seed Germination in Pots
Seeds were cultivated in two cultivation groups:

SET I: Consisting of sterilized soil pots labelled as ST o (control), ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 and ST5 consisting of five treatments (10:90; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) i.e mixing proportions of sewage wastewater with tap water (sewage wastewater: tap water). The 100% tap water served as the control (STo). As such most concentrated wastewater is used in ST5 and least in ST1. There were 3 replicates of each treatment.

SET II: Consisting of non-sterilized soil pots labelled as NSTo (control), NST1, NST2, NST3, NST4 and NST5 and 3 sets of each were used for growing the plant. After sowing the seeds the same procedure was followed as above with varying concentration of wastewater as NST1, NST2, NST3, NST4 and NST5 consisting of five treatments (10:90; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100).
3moong been seeds per control and pots were prepared in equal soil and cultivation condition in both the groups. The seeds were irrigated after every 2 days with equal amount of proportionately mixed water and the seeds irrigated with distilled water were taken as control.3 sets in each concentration were maintained along with the control for comparison.

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Physicochemical Analysis of Rispana Sewage Wastewater:

Table 1: The Physicochemical parameters of Rispana wastewater

S. No. Parameter Result
1.
Colour
Turbid
2.
pH
7.25
3.
TDS
50 ppm
4.
TSS
45 ppm
5.
DO
7.1 mg/L
6.
BOD
1.9 mg/L
7.
COD
6.1 mg/L
8.
Alkalinity
220 mg/L


3.2 Morphological Analysis of Moong Bean Plants:
3.2.1: The effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on seed germination of Moong bean plant in-vitro (Petri-plates & culture tubes):

Table 2. SET A (Germination in Petri-plates):


S. No. Shoot length (cm.) Root length (cm.) No. of leaves Fresh weight (gm) Dry weight (gm)
Ao 8.60 3.94 3 0.32 0.25
A1 8.52 3.80 2 0.31 0.20
A2 7.18 2.78 2 0.27 0.15
A3 7.50 2.42 2 0.28 0.16
A4 4.12 1.54 1 0.22 0.11
A5 2.70 1.00 1 0.19 0.10



Fig. 1: Effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on seed
germination of Moong bean plant (Petriplates)


Table 3: Set B (Germination in Culture Tubes):

S. No. Shoot length (cm.) Root length (cm.) No. of leaves Fresh weight (gm) Dry weight (gm)
Ao 16.0 8.73 2 0.37 0.22
A1 12.9 6.83 2 0.30 0.14
A2 11.8 6.06 2 0.31 0.16
A3 12.3 3.33 2 0.33 0.15
A4 13.2 1.93 2 0.34 0.20
A5 9.7 1.73 1 0.33 0.15
Ao - Control (normal tap water),             A3- 50% wastewater
A1- 10% wastewater,                                 A4- 75% wastewater
A2- 25% wastewater,                               A5- 100% wastewater (i.e undiluted)



Fig. 2: Effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on Seed
germination of Moong bean plant in-vitro (Culture tubes)


3.2.2: The effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on seed germination of Moong bean plant in pots (non-sterilized soil and sterilized soil):

Table 4: Set A (Germination in Non Sterilized Soil):


S. No. Root length (cm.) No. of leaves Fresh weight (gm) Dry weight (gm)
Ao 13.80 3.73 2 0.43 0.18
A1 12.06 3.43 2 0.35 0.17
A2 11.36 2.96 2 0.32 0.10
A3 10.43 2.96 2 0.28 0.14
A4 9.26 2.60 2 0.31 0.06
A5 5.70 1.33 2 0.17 0.04
Ao- Control (normal tap water),            A3- 50% wastewater
A1- 10% wastewater,                               A4- 75% wastewater
A2- 25% wastewater,                               A5- 100% wastewater (i.e undiluted)



Fig. 3: The effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on Seed
germination of Moong bean plant in pots (non-sterilized soil)


Table 5: SET B (Germination in Sterilized Soil):

S. No. Shoot length (cm.) Root length (cm.) No. of leaves Fresh weight (gm) Dry weight (gm)
Ao 13.06 3.90 3 0.39 0.17
A1 12.76 3.33 2 0.40 0.14
A2 11.73 3.10 2 0.40 0.15
A3 11.33 3.80 2 0.29 0.14
A4 9.40 3.20 2 0.30 0.06
A5 9.00 1.63 2 0.29 0.04
Ao- Control (normal tap water),            A3- 50% wastewater
A1- 10% wastewater,                               A4- 75% wastewater
A2- 25% wastewater,                               A5- 100% wastewater (i.e undiluted)



Fig.4: The effect of various concentration of sewage wastewater on seed
germination of Moong bean plant in pots (sterilized soil)


Using wastewater for growing the moong bean plantlets decreased the physiological parameters in all the sets. Maximum root length in overall study was found in culture tubes in control (i.e 8.73 cm.) .Root length decreased with increase in concentration of sewage wastewater. It is in accordance with the findings of Augusthy and Sherin [6] who stated that root length of Vigna radiata increase in low concentration of effluents. Shoot length showed a significant lower value in waste water irrigated plants as compared to the controls. Overall maximum shoot length was found in culture tube in control (i.e 16 cm.). Fresh weight and dry weight were decreasing after application of wastewater as compared to control conditions. Literature reveals that micronutrients found in waste water may be beneficial for plant growth but several factors may produce undesirable effects on plants at higher concentration. And this is supported by present data which indicated that visible symptoms of toxicity appeared in plants irrigated with higher concentration of wastewater, such as brown spots on leaf and chlorosis and ovate shape with curling in leaf margin. Colour of leaf as green is observed in plants irrigated with control and low concentration of wastewater. The effect of wastewater on germination was discourageable towards higher concentrations. The effect of sewage water on seedling growth was suitable in the lower concentration (25%), whereas the higher concentration (50, 75 and 100%) was inhibitory in untreated.

4. CONCLUSION
The main purpose of the study of physicochemical parameters of river was to determine the pollution status of the river and also its effect on plant. On the basis of above observations it becomes clear that the water is not at all fit for drinking and other domestic purposes. After analysing it was concluded that the water of Rispana river need some treatment before its use. Also the effect of different dilution of wastewater on plant growth showed that the highest decrease in every parameter was found at 75% and 100% dilutions of sewage in every set. Results revealed that waste water irrigation brought up negative changes in most of the important growth parameters of plant and hence this wastewater is not found suitable for crop irrigation but can be used for irrigation purposes in agricultural practices after proper dilutions. It is also suggested that, treatment of sewage is necessary to minimise the pollution effects before it is discharged.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I convey my most sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Utkarsh Singh, Head, Department of Biotechnology, Sai Institute of Paramedical and Allied sciences, Dehradun for providing me an opportunity to carry out research work under his helpful guidance.

REFERENCES
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